5th Century BC Swords

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Swords History - 5th Century BC

Celtic Sword - The most common Celtic swords were the long and short swords. The swords had leaf-shaped blades and featured hilts that were made of either copper, wood, bone or horn. The sword’s cross-guards and pommels were often “U” shaped with the “U” facing opposite directions. Swords’ scabbards were usually made from two plates of iron or bronze.

Falcata Sword - Falcata was type of a sword that was in use in the pre-Roman Hispania that encompassed today’s Iberian Peninsula including Spain and Portugal. The falcata sword was similar to Greek kopis sword. The term falcata was coined recently and it is derived from the Latin expression ensis flacatus meaning “sickle-shaped sword”. The shape of the sword distributes the weight so that the weapon is able to deliver heavy blow of an axe while maintaining the cutting blade of a sword. The falcate-type swords were derived from sickle-shaped knives used in the Iron Age. It is believed that falcatas were introduced to the Iberian Peninsula by the Celts and that their origin is parallel to the Greek Kopis.

Kopis Sword - The Kopis was a single-handed sword that featured a blade that was forward-curving. The average length of the sword was 3 feet. The sword was used not only as a weapon but also as a cutting tool used to cut meat or to slaughter animals. The Kopis sword is believed to be the predecessor of Iberian Falcata sword.

Makhaira Sword - Makhaira was a type of a short and slightly curved sword used in Ancient Greece. Makhaira sword is contemporary to the other Greek sword, Xiphos; however, it is suggested that the Xiphos was the prevalent sword among the Greek army, whereas the Makhaira sword was common among the cavalry.

Xiphos Sword - The xiphos is a sword that was used by the ancient Greeks. The sword featured a double-edged, leaf-shaped blade that was perfect for cutting, slashing and thrusting. Xiphos was a short and thus, single-handed sword. The sword was used as a secondary, close combat weapon and it was used when the primary weapon, the spear was discarded. The very early Xiphos swords were made of bronze. Similarly shaped swords were in existence throughout the Europe under various different names. En example can be the La Tene Celtic short sword that was contemporary with the Greek Xiphos.

Sword History | Sword Origin Timeline

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